IOWC Associate: William Clarence-Smith

Dr. Clarence-Smith is Professor of the Economic History of Asia and Africa, Department of History, SOAS, University of London. He is Chief Editor of the Journal of Global History, Cambridge University Press, and Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society and the Royal Historical Society.
 
His current historical research interests include maritime commodities (notably pearls, nacre, and sponges), livestock (notably mules), tropical crops (notably rubber in World War II), entrepreneurial diasporas (notably Arabs in SE Asia), early manufacturing in the global South, slavery, Palestine in World War I, and Islam and sexuality.
 

Publications

Monographs

 
2015 Cocoa and chocolate, 1765-1914, London: Routledge, 319 pp. (paperback edition).
 
2008 Slaves, peasants and capitalists in Southern Angola, 1840-1926, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 132 pp. (paperback edition).
 
2006 Islam and the abolition of slavery, London: Hurst, 293 pp. (New York: Oxford University Press, for North America).
 
2000 Cocoa and chocolate, 1765-1914, London: Routledge, 319 pp.
 
1991 O terceiro império português, 1825-1975, Lisbon: Editorial Teorema, 272 pp. (translation of 1985 edition).
 
1986 The third Portuguese empire, 1825-1975, a study in economic imperialism, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 246 pp. (paperback edition)
 
1985 The third Portuguese empire, 1825-1975, a study in economic imperialism, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 246 pp. 
 
1979 Slaves, peasants and capitalists in Southern Angola, 1840-1926, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 132 pp.
 
 

Edited collections

2015 The economics of the Indian Ocean slave trade in the nineteenth century, London: Routledge, 222 pp. (paperback edition).
 
2015 al-Shatât al Hadramî: tujjâr, ‘ulamâ’, wa rijâl dawlah Hadârim fi al-Muhît al-Hindî, 1750-1960m, Tarim (Hadhramaut): Tarîm lil-Dirâsât wa al-Nashr, 415 pp. (Arabic translation of Hadhrami traders, scholars and statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s; with Ulrike Freitag)
 
2012 Sexual diversity in Asia, c. 600-1950, London: Routledge, 173 pp. (with Raquel A. G. Reyes).
 
2003 The global coffee economy in Africa, Asia and Latin America, 1500-1989, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 486 pp. (with Steven Topik; paperback edition 2006).
 
1997 Hadhrami traders, scholars and statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 392 pp. (with Ulrike Freitag).
 
1996 Cocoa pioneer fronts since 1800: the role of smallholders, planters and merchants, London: Macmillan, 247 pp.
 
1989 The economics of the Indian Ocean slave trade in the nineteenth century, London: Frank Cass, 222 pp. (also published as special number of journal, see below).
 
 

Edited special numbers of journals 

2007 ‘Islamic history as global history,’ special number of Journal of Global History, 2, 2, 260 pp. (sole editor).
 
1988 ‘The economics of the Indian Ocean slave trade in the nineteenth century,’ special number of Slavery and Abolition, 9, 3, 222 pp. (sole editor; also published as a book, see above).
 
1985 ‘L’Afrique Australe face à Pretoria,’ special number of Politique Africaine, 19, 134 pp. (co-edited with Daniel Bach).
 
1983 ‘Business empires in Equatorial Africa,’ special number of African Economic History, 12, 297 pp. (sole editor).
 
 

Articles, chapters, review articles, and museum exhibitions

2016 ‘Sephardic Jews from Morocco in the lusophone world, 1774-1975,’ in Manuel Sílvio Alves Conde, Margarida Vaz do Rego Machado, and Susanna Serpa Silva, eds., Percursos da história: estudos in memoriam de Fátima Sequeira Dias, Ponta Delgada (Azores): Nova Gráfica, pp. 195-208.
 
2016 ‘Chocolate consumption from the sixteenth century to the great chocolate boom,’ in Mara P. Squicciarini and Johan Swinnen, eds., The economics of chocolate, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 43-70. (reprint, with minor corrections, of chapter in 2000 book)
 
2015 ‘The economics of the Indian Ocean and Red Sea slave trades in the 19th century: an overview,’ in William G. Clarence-Smith, ed., The economics of the Indian Ocean slave trade in the nineteenth century, London: Routledge, pp. 1-20 (paperback reprint of 1989 edition).
 
2015 ‘Middle Eastern diasporas in Portugal and the Portuguese empire, c. 1750-1975’, in Jean Batou, Frédérique Beauvois, Thomas David, Mathieu Humbert, and Claude Lutzelschwab, eds., Deux mondes, une planète/ Two worlds, one planet: mélanges offerts à Bouda Etemad/ essays in honor of Bouda Etemad, Lausanne: Éditions d’en Bas, pp. 199-209.
 
2015 ‘Breeding and power in Southeast Asia: horses, mules and donkeys in the longue durée,’ in David Henley and Henk Schulte Nordholt, eds., Environment, trade and society in Southeast Asia: a longue durée perspective, Leiden: Brill, pp. 32-45.
 
2015 ‘Africa’s “battle for rubber” in the Second World War,’ in Judith A. Byfield, Carolyn A. Brown, Timothy Parsons, and Ahmad A. Sikainga, eds., Africa and World War II, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 166-82.
 
2015 ‘Middle Eastern states and the Philippines under early American rule, 1898-1919,’ in A. C. S. Peacock and Annabel Teh Gallop, eds., From Anatolia to Aceh: Ottomans, Turks and Southeast Asia, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 199-219.
 
2014 ‘The textile industry of eastern Africa in the longue durée,’ in Emmanuel Akyeampong, Robert Bates, Nathan Nunn, and James A. Robinson, eds., Africa’s development in historical perspective, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 264-94.
 
2014 ‘Slavery in early modern Russia,’ in Stefan Hanss and Juliane Schiel, eds., Mediterranean slavery revisited, 500-1800, Zurich: Chronos Verlag, pp. 119-42.
 
2014 ‘Mules in the “English world”: cultural rejection versus practical utility’, Gallery 8: Animals and empire exhibition, Animal History Museum, Los Angeles, California. http://animalhistorymuseum.org/?page_id=4439
 
2013 ‘Islamic abolitionism in the western Indian Ocean from c. 1800,’ in Robert Harms, Bernard K. Freamon, and David W. Blight, eds., Indian Ocean slavery in the age of abolition, New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 81-97.
 
2013 ‘Wajih al-Kilani, shaykh al-Islam of the Philippines and notable of Nazareth, 1913-1916,’ in Mahmoud Yazbak and Sharif Sharif, eds., Nazareth history and cultural heritage, Nazareth: Nazareth Municipality, pp. 171-92 (Nazareth Academic Studies Series, No. 2).
 
2013 ‘Debt and the coercion of labour in the Islamic legal tradition,’ in Gwyn Campbell and Alessandro Stanziani, eds., Bonded labour and debt in the Indian Ocean World, London: Pickering & Chatto, pp. 21-30.
 
2013 ‘The battle for rubber in the Second World War: cooperation and resistance,’ in Jonathan Curry-Machado, ed., Global histories, imperial commodities, local interactions, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 204-23. (revised version of 2009 electronic publication)
 
2013 ‘Rubber cultivation in Indonesia and the Congo from the 1910s to the 1950s: divergent paths,’ in Ewout Frankema and Frans Buelens, eds., Colonial exploitation and economic development: the Belgian Congo and the Netherlands Indies compared, London: Routledge, pp. 193-210.
 
2013 ‘The historical spread of Trypanosoma evansi (surra) in camels: a factor in the weakening of Islam?’ in Ed Emery, ed., Selected papers from the first international conference, ‘Camel cultures: historical traditions, present threats and future prospects’, London: RN Books, pp. 87-94.
 
2012 ‘The Hadhrami sada and the evolution of an Islamic religious international, c.1750s to 1930s’, in Abigail Green and Vincent Viaene, eds., Religious internationals in the modern world: globalization and faith communities since 1750, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 233-51.
 
2012 ‘Grands et petits planteurs de caoutchouc en Afrique, 1934-1973’, in Économie Rurale: Agricultures, Alimentations, Territoires, 330-331, pp. 88-102.
 
2012 ‘Female circumcision in Southeast Asia since the coming of Islam,’ in Chitra Raghavan and James P. Levine, eds., Self-determination and women’s rights in Muslim societies, Waltham (MA): Brandeis University Press, pp. 124-46. 
 
2012 ‘Same-sex relations and transgender identities in Islamic Southeast Asia from the fifteenth century,’ in Raquel A. G. Reyes and William G. Clarence-Smith, eds., Sexual diversity in Asia, c. 600-1950, London: Routledge, pp. 67-85.
 
2011 ‘The expansion of cotton textile production in the western Indian Ocean, c1500-c1850,’ in Stefan C. A. Halikowski Smith, ed., Reinterpreting Indian Ocean worlds: essays in honour of Kirti N. Chaudhuri, Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing Ltd., pp. 84-106.
 
2011 ‘The Portuguese empire and the “battle for rubber” in the Second Word War,’ in Portuguese Studies Review, 19, 1-2, pp. 177-96 (special volume in memory of Jill R. Dias, a scholar for all seasons: Jill Dias, 1944-2008).
 
2011 ‘The redemption of child slaves by Christian missionaries in Central Africa, 1878-1914,’ in Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph C. Miller, eds., Child slaves in the modern world, Athens (OH): Ohio University Press, pp. 173-90.
 
2011 ‘White servitude’ (with David Eltis), in David Eltis and Stanley Engerman, eds. The Cambridge world history of slavery, volume 3, AD 1420-AD 1804, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 132-59.
 
2010 ‘Southeast Asia and China, c. 1800 to c. 1910,’ in Francis Robinson, ed., The new Cambridge history of Islam, volume 5: The Islamic world in the age of Western dominance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 240-68.
 
2010 ‘L’esclavage et son abolition dans l’histoire de l’Islam,’ in Alessandro Stanziani, ed., Le travail contraint en Asie et en Europe, XVIIe-XXe siècles, Paris: Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, pp. 93-116.
 
2010 ‘La SOCFIN (Groupe Rivaud) entre l’Axe et les Alliés,’ in Hubert Bonin, Christophe Bouneau, and Hervé Joly, eds., Les enterprises et l’outre-mer français pendant la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, Pessac: Maison des Sciences de l’Homme d’Aquitaine, pp. 99-113.
 
2010 ‘Diseases of equids in Southeast Asia, c.1800-c.1945: apocalypse or progress?,’ in Karen Brown and Daniel Gilfoyle, eds., Healing the herds: disease, livestock economies, and the globalization of veterinary medicine, Athens: Ohio University Press, pp. 129-45.
 
2010 ‘Synthetic and temperate rubber in the interwar years and during World War II,’ Journal of Global History, 5,1, pp. 171-6. (Review Article).
 
2009 ‘The battle for rubber in the Second World War: cooperation and resistance,’ Open University and Institute for the Study of the Americas, Commodities of empire working paper No. 14, electronic publication: http://www.open.ac.uk/Arts/ferguson-centre/commodities-of-empire/working...
 
2009 ‘The British “official mind” and nineteenth-century Islamic debates over the abolition of slavery,’ in Keith Hamilton and Patrick Salmon, eds., Slavery, diplomacy and empire: Britain and the suppression of the slave trade, 1807-1975, pp. 125-42, Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 
 
2009 ‘The production of cotton textiles in early modern South-East Asia,’ in Giorgio Riello and Prasannan Parthasarathi, eds., The spinning world: a global history of cotton textiles, 1200-1850, pp. 127-42, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 
 
2009 ‘Entrepreneurial strategies of Hadhrami Arabs in Southeast Asia, c. 1750s-1950s,’ in Ahmed I. Abushouk and Hassan A. Ibrahim, eds., The Hadhrami diaspora in Southeast Asia: identity maintenance or assimilation?, pp. 135-58, Leiden: Brill.
 
2008 ‘Eunuques et concubines dans le Sud-est asiatique musulman,’ Le Banian, Publication Semestrielle de l’Association Franco-Indonésienne Pasar Malam, 6, pp. 56-66, (in special issue on ‘Sexe, pouvoir et nation,’ edited by Johanna Lederer) [translation of ‘Eunuchs and concubines’ 2007, with minimal annotation].
 
2008 ‘Islam and female genital cutting in Southeast Asia: the weight of the past,’ in Marja Tiilikainen, Maarit Forde, and Susan Villa, eds., Female Genital Cutting in the past and today, special number of the Finnish Journal of Ethnicity and Migration, 3, 2, pp. 14-22, (www.etmu.fi/fjem/pdf/FJEM_2_2008.pdf)
 
2008 ‘Église, nation et esclavage: Angola et Mozambique portugais, 1878-1913,’ in Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau, ed., Abolir l’esclavage: un réformisme à l’épreuve, France, Portugal, Suisse, XVIIIe-XIXe siècles, pp. 149-67, Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.
 
2008 ‘The global consumption of hot beverages, c. 1500 to c. 1900,’ in Alexander Nützenadel and Frank Trentmann, eds., Food and globalization: consumption, markets and politics in the modern world, pp. 37-55, Oxford: Berg.
 
2007 ‘Eunuchs and concubines in the history of Islamic Southeast Asia,’ Manusya, Journal of Humanities, 14, pp. 8-19. [actually published 2008] (in special issue on ‘Sexuality in Southeast Asian history,’ edited by Montira Rato and Raquel Reyes).
 
2007 ‘Islam and the abolition of slavery,’ Centre for Islamic Studies Newsletter (London School of Theology), 16, pp. 3-4.
 
2007 ‘Southeast Asia and Southern Africa in the maritime horse trade of the Indian Ocean, c. 1800-1914,’ in Greg Bankoff and Sandra Swart, eds., Breeds of empire; the 'invention' of the horse in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa, 1500-1950, pp. 21-32, Copenhagen: NIAS Press.
 
2007 ‘Scientific and technological interchanges between the Islamic world and Europe, c.1450-c.1800,’ in Simonetta Cavaciocchi, ed., Relazioni economiche tra Europa e mondo islamico, secc. XIII-XVIII/Europe's economic relations with the Islamic world, 13th-18th centuries, vol. 2, pp. 719-37, Prato: Le Monnier.
 
2007 ‘Continental European views of the slave trade,’ Slavery and Abolition, 28, 1, pp. 127-31, (Review Article).
 
2005 ‘El cacao en Chiapas durante el largo siglo XIX,’ in Mercedes Olivera and María-Dolores Palomo, eds., Chiapas: de la independencia a la revolución, pp. 233-51, Mexico City: Publicaciones de la Casa Chata.
 
2005 ‘Islam and the abolition of the slave trade and slavery in the Indian Ocean,’ in Gwyn Campbell, ed., Abolition and its aftermath in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia, pp. 137-49, London: Routledge.
 
2005 ‘Middle-Eastern entrepreneurs in Southeast Asia, c. 1750 - c. 1940,’ in Ina Baghdiantz McCabe, Gelina Harlaftis, and Ioanna Pepelasis Minoglou, eds., Diaspora entrepreneurial networks: four centuries of history, pp. 217-44, Oxford: Berg.
 
2005 ‘Lebanese and other Middle Eastern migrants in the Philippines,’ in Akira Usuki, Omar F. Bajunid, and Tomoko Yamagishi, eds., Population movement beyond the Middle East; migration diaspora and network, pp. 115-43, Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology (JCAS Symposium Series 17).
 
2004 ‘Middle Eastern migrants in the Philippines: entrepreneurs and cultural brokers,’ in Asian Journal of Social Science, 32, 3, pp. 425-57.
 
2004 ‘Horse breeding in Mainland Southeast Asia and its borderlands,’ in Peter Boomgaard and David Henley, eds., Smallholders and stockbreeders: histories of foodcrop and livestock farming in Southeast Asia, pp. 189-210, Leiden: KITLV Press.
 
2004 ‘Cape to Siberia: the Indian Ocean and China Sea trade in equids,’ in David Killingray, Margarette Lincoln and Nigel Rigby, eds., Maritime empires: British imperial maritime trade in the  nineteenth century, pp. 48-67, Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer.
 
2004 ‘Elephants, horses, and the coming of Islam to Northern Sumatra,’ in Indonesia and the Malay World, 32, 93, pp. 271-84.
 
2004 ‘Arabs’, ‘Cocoa’, ‘Coffee’, and ‘Horses and mules’, in Ooi Keat Gin, ed., Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, vol. 1, pp. 169-71, 357-9, and 360-2, and vol. 2, pp. 609-10, Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio.
 
2003 ‘The coffee crisis in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific, 1870-1914,’ in William G. Clarence-Smith and Steven Topik, eds., The global coffee  economy in Africa, Asia and Latin America, 1500-1989, pp. 100-19, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 
2003 ‘Introduction: coffee and global development,’ in William G. Clarence-Smith and Steven Topik, eds., The global coffee  economy in Africa, Asia and Latin America, 1500-1989, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-17, (with Steven Topik).
 
2003 ‘Conclusion: new propositions and a research agenda,’ in William G. Clarence-Smith and Steven Topik, eds., The global coffee  economy in Africa, Asia and Latin America, 1500-1989, pp. 385-410, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, (with Steven Topik).
 
2002 ‘Horse trading: the economic role of Arabs in the Lesser Sunda Islands, c. 1800 to c. 1940,’ in Huub de Jonge and Nico Kaptein, eds., Transcending borders: Arabs, politics, trade and  Islam in Southeast Asia, pp. 143-62, Leiden: KITLV Press.
 
2002 ‘The rise and fall of Hadhrami shipping in the Indian Ocean, c1750-c1940,’ in David Parkin and Ruth Barnes, eds., Ships and the development of maritime technology across the Indian Ocean, pp. 227-58, London: RoutledgeCurzon.
 
2001 ‘Indian and Arab entrepreneurs in eastern Africa, 1800-1914,’ in Hubert Bonin and Michel Cahen, eds., Négoce blanc en Afrique noire: l'évolution du commerce à longue distance en Afrique Noire, du 18e au 20e siècles, pp. 335-49, Paris: Société Française d'Histoire d'Outre-Mer.
 
2001 ‘The spread of coffee cultivation in Asia, from the seventeenth to the early nineteenth century,’ in Michel Tuchscherer, ed., Le commerce du café avant l'ère des plantations coloniales, pp. 371-84, Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale.
 
2000 ‘Arab entrepreneurs in the Malay world in the 1930s recession,’ in Peter Boomgaard and Ian Brown, eds., Weathering the storm: the economies of Southeast Asia in the 1930s depression, pp. 229-48, Leiden and Singapore: KITLV Press and ISEAS. (earlier version in Gareth Austin, ed., Industrial growth in the Third World).
 
2000 ‘The impact of 1898 on Spanish trade and investment in the Philippines,’ in Charles Macdonald and Guillermo M. Pesigan, eds., Old  ties and new  solidarities, studies on Philippine communities, pp. 234-68, Manila: Ateneo de Manila Press.
 
1999 ‘The modern colonial state and global economic integration, 1815-1945,’ in David A. Smith, Dorothy J. Solinger and Steven C. Topik, eds., State and sovereignty in the global economy, pp. 120-37, London: Routledge.
 
1998 ‘Arab entrepreneurs in the Malay world in the 1930s recession,’ in Gareth Austin, ed., Industrial growth in the Third World, c.1870-c.1990: depressions, intra-regional trade, and ethnic networks, pp. 58-72, London: LSE (London School of Economics Working Papers in Economic History, 44).
 
1998 ‘The rise and fall of Maluku cocoa production in the nineteenth century: lessons for the present,’ in Sandra Pannell and Franz von Benda-Beckmann, eds., Old World places, New World problems: exploring resource management issues in eastern Indonesia, pp. 113-42, Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies.
 
1998 ‘The economic role of the Arab community in Maluku, 1816 to 1940,’ Indonesia and the Malay World, 26, 74, pp. 32-49.
 
1997 ‘The Rivaud-Hallet plantation group in the economic crises of the inter-war years,’ in Pierre Lanthier and Hubert Watelet, eds., Private enterprises during economic crises: tactics and strategies, pp. 117-32, Ottawa: Legas.
 
1997 ‘Hadhramaut and the Hadhrami diaspora in the modern colonial era: an introductory survey,’ in Ulrike Freitag and William G. Clarence-Smith, eds., Hadhrami traders, scholars and statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s , pp. 1-18, Leiden: E. J. Brill. (Arabic translation 2015 - see edited collections)
 
1997 ‘Hadhrami entrepreneurs in the Malay World, c. 1750 to c. 1940,’ in Ulrike Freitag and William G. Clarence-Smith, eds., Hadhrami traders, scholars and statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s , pp. 297-314, Leiden: E. J. Brill. (Arabic translation 2015 - see edited collections)
 
1997 ‘The economic role of the Hadhrami diaspora in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, 1820s to 1930s,’ in Ulrike Freitag and William G. Clarence-Smith, eds., Hadhrami traders, scholars and statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s , pp. 281-96, Leiden: E. J. Brill (with Janet Ewald; Arabic translation 2015 - see edited collections).
 
1996 ‘Cocoa pioneer fronts: the historical determinants,’ in William G. Clarence-Smith, ed., Cocoa pioneer fronts since 1800: the role of smallholders, planters and merchants, pp. 1-22, London: Macmillan, (with F. Ruf).
 
1996 ‘Le cacao dans l'économie tropicale, de 1800 à 1940,’ in Emmanuel Collet, ed., Chocolat, de la boisson élitaire au bâton populaire, XVIe-XXe siècle, , pp. 105-20, Brussels: CGER, (translated as ‘Cacao in de economie van de tropen, van 1800 tot 1940,’ in Emmanuel Collet, ed., Chocolade, van drank voor edelman tot reep voor alleman, 16de-20ste eeuw, Brussels: CGER, 1996, pp. 105-20.
 
1995 ‘Cocoa plantations in the Third World, 1870s-1914: the political economy of inefficiency,’ in John Harriss, Janet Hunter, and Colin Lewis, eds., The New Institutional Economics and Third World development, London: Routledge, pp. 157-71 (re-issued in paperback 1997).
 
1995 ‘The cocoa crisis and land reform in São Tomé e Principe,’ in François Ruf and P. S. Siswoputranto, eds., Cocoa cycles: the economics of cocoa supply, Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd., pp. 233-47.
 
1994 ‘The organisation of “consent” in British West Africa, 1820s to 1960s,’ in Dagmar Engels and Shula Marks, eds., Contesting colonial hegemony, state and society in Africa and India, London: British Academic Press, pp. 55-78.
 
1994 ‘The impact of forced coffee cultivation on Java, 1805-1917,’ Indonesia Circle, 64, pp. 241-64.
 
1994 ‘The contribution of Africans and Europeans to cocoa cultivation on Fernando Póo, 1882-1914,’ Journal of African History, 35, 2, pp. 179-200.
 
1994 ‘The dynamics of the African slave trade,’ Africa, 64, 2, pp. 275-86 (Review Article).
 
1994 ‘La dynamique économique de l’impérialisme espagnol, 1898-1945,’ Cahiers d'Histoire de l'Institut de Recherches Marxistes, 54, pp. 51-64 (translation of 1988 item).
 
1993 ‘Struggles over labour conditions in the plantations of São Tomé and Príncipe, 1875-1914,’ in Michael Twaddle, ed., The wages of slavery: from chattel slavery to wage labour in Africa, the Caribbean, and England, London: Frank Cass, pp. 149-67  (also published in Slavery and Abolition, 14, 1,1993, pp. 149-67).
 
1993 ‘Cocoa plantations and coerced labour in the Gulf of Guinea, 1870-1914,’ in Martin Klein, ed., Breaking the chains: slavery, bondage and emancipation in modern Africa and Asia, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 150-70.
 
1993 ‘Plantation versus smallholder production of cocoa: the legacy of the German period in Cameroon,’ in Peter Geschiere and Piet Konings, eds., Itinéraires d’accumulation au Cameroun, Paris: Karthala, pp. 187-216 (revised version of 1989 piece).
 
1992 ‘Planters and smallholders in Portuguese Timor in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries,’ Indonesia Circle, 57, pp. 15-30.
 
1992 ‘Emigration from Western Africa, 1807-1940,’ in Pieter C. Emmer and Magnus Mörner, eds., European expansion and migration: essays on the intercontinental migration from Africa, Asia and Europe, Oxford: Berg, pp. 197-210 (republication of 1990 piece).
 
1991 ‘The economic dynamics of Spanish colonialism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries,’ Itinerario, 15, 1, pp. 71-90.
 
1990 ‘The hidden costs of labour on the cocoa plantations of São Tomé and Príncipe, 1875-1914,’ Portuguese Studies, 6, pp. 152-72.
 
1990 ‘Emigration from Western Africa, 1807-1940,’ Itinerario, 14, 1, pp. 45-60.
 
1989 ‘Indian business communities in the Western Indian Ocean in the nineteenth century,’ The Indian Ocean Review, 2, 4, pp. 18-21.
 
1989 ‘Le problème ethnique en Angola,’ in Jean-Pierre Chrétien and Gérard Prunier, eds., Les ethnies ont une histoire, Paris: Karthala, pp. 405-15.
 
1989 ‘Creoles and peasants in São Tomé, Príncipe, Fernando Póo and Mount Cameroun in the nineteenth century,’ in Maria Emilia Madeira Santos, ed., Primeira reunião internacional de história de Africa: Relação Europa-Africa no terceiro quartel do século XIX, Actas, Lisbon: Centro de Estudos de História e Cartografia Antiga, pp. 489-99.
 
1989 ‘From plantation to peasant cocoa production in German Cameroun,’ in Peter Geschiere and Piet Konings, eds., Conference on the political economy of Cameroon, historical perspectives, Leiden: African Studies Centre, vol. 2, pp. 483-502.
 
1989 ‘La traite portugaise et espagnole en Afrique au XIXe siècle,’ in Serge Daget, ed., De la traite à l'esclavage, actes du colloque international sur la traite des noirs, Nantes: Centre de Recherche sur l'Histoire du Monde Atlantique, pp. 425-34.
 
1989 ‘The effects of the Great Depression of the 1930s on industrialisation in Equatorial and Central Africa,’ in Ian Brown, ed., The economies of Africa and Asia in the inter-war depression, London: Routledge, pp. 170-202.
 
1989 ‘The economics of the Indian Ocean and Red Sea slave trades in the 19th century: an overview,’ in William G. Clarence-Smith, ed., The economics of the Indian Ocean slave trade in the nineteenth century, pp. 1-20, London: Frank Cass, (also published in Slavery and Abolition, 9, 3, pp. 1-20, 1988).
 
1989 ‘The roots of the Mozambican counter-revolution,’ Southern African Review of Books, 2, 4, pp. 7-10 (Review Article).
 
1988 ‘The economic dynamics of Spanish imperialism: 1898-1945,’ in Victor Morales Lezcano, ed., Segunda aula Canarias y el Noroeste de Africa (1986), Las Palmas: Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria, pp. 17-28. 
 
1988 ‘The Portuguese and Spanish roles in the Scramble for Africa: an economic interpretation,’ in Stig Förster et al., eds., Bismarck, Europe and Africa; the Berlin West Africa Conference and the onset of partition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 215-27.
 
1988 ‘The Angolan connection in Namibian history,’ in Brian Wood, ed., Namibia, 1884-1984, readings on Namibia’s history and society, London: Namibia Support Committee, pp. 171-4.
 
1988 ‘Protectionism and sugar production in Central and Equatorial Africa, 1910-1945,’ in Bill Albert and Adrian Graves, eds., The world sugar economy in war and depression, 1914-1940, London: Routledge, pp. 209-20. (translated and abridged from ‘O proteccionismo’ 1986, below).
 
1987 ‘Le MPLA et la paysannerie angolaise: un exemple pour le Zaïre ?,’ in Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch et al., eds., Rébellions-révolutions au Zaïre, 1963-1965, vol. 2, Paris: L’Harmattan, pp. 106-14.
 
1987 ‘“The imperialism of beggars”: the role of the less developed powers in the nineteenth century scramble for colonies,’ Institute of Commonwealth Studies, Collected Seminar Papers, The City and Empire, vol. 2, pp. 94-100.
 
1986 ‘Spanish Equatorial Guinea, 1898-1940,’ in Andrew Roberts, ed., Cambridge History of Africa, vol. 7, pp. 537-43, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 
1986 ‘Portuguese trade with Africa in the 19th century: an economic imperialism (with an appendix on the trade of Angola),’ in G. Liesegang et al., eds., Figuring African trade; proceedings of the symposium on the quantification and structure of the import and export and long distance trade in Africa, pp. 394-411, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.
 
1986 ‘Runaway slaves and social bandits in Southern Angola, 1875-1913,’ in Gad Heuman, ed., Out of the house of bondage, runaways, resistance and marronage in Africa and the New World, pp. 23-33, London: Frank Cass, (also published in Slavery and Abolition, 6, 3, pp. 23-33, 1986).
 
1986 ‘O proteccionismo e a produção de açúcar na Africa Central e Equatorial, Angola, Moçambique, Zaïre, Zimbabwe, 1910-1945,’ Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, 4-5, pp. 159-89.
 
1986 ‘International library and archival cooperation: Portugal and Spain,’ in I. Sternberg and P. Larby, eds., African studies, , pp. 179-82, London: The British Library.
 
1985 ‘Business empires in Angola under Salazar, 1930-1961,’ African Economic History, 14, pp. 1-13.
 
1985 ‘The impact of the Spanish Civil War and the Second World War on Portuguese and Spanish Africa,’ Journal of African History, 26, pp. 309-26, (translated as ‘El impacto de dos guerras: Africa Portuguesa y Española, 1936-1945,’ Africa 2000, 2, 2-3, pp. 20-2, and 31-9, 1987).
 
1985 ‘What is Third World History?,’ History Today, 35,  pp. 40-1, Sept. (republished in J. Gardiner, ed., What is history today?,  pp. 158-60, London: Macmillan, 1988).
 
1985 ‘Thou shalt not articulate modes of production,’ Canadian Journal of African Studies, 19, 1, pp. 19-22, (also published in Bogumil Jewsiewicki and J. Létourneau, eds., Mode of production: the challenge of Africa, pp. 19-22, Safi Press: Ste. Foy,  Québec, 1985).
 
1985 ‘Angola and Mozambique, 1870-1905,’ Cambridge history of Africa, vol. 6, pp. 493-521, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, (with A. K. Smith).
 
1985 ‘Liberation struggles and independence in Lusophone Africa in four recent books,’ Portuguese Studies, 1, (Review Article).
 
1984 ‘The Portuguese contribution to the Cuban slave and coolie trades in the nineteenth century,’ Slavery and Abolition, 5, 1, pp. 24-31, (earlier version in Institute of Commonwealth Studies, Collected Seminar Papers, Caribbean Societies, vol. 2, pp. 70-77, 1985).
 
1984 ‘The sugar and rum industries in the Portuguese empire, 1850-1914,’ in Bill Albert and Adrian Graves, eds., Crisis and change in the international sugar economy, 1860-1914, pp. 227-35, Norwich: ISC Press.
 
1983 ‘Business empires in Equatorial Africa,’ African Economic History, 12, pp. 3-11.
 
1983 ‘Les investissements belges en Angola, 1912-1961,’ in Laboratoire Connaissance du Tiers-Monde, Actes du colloque ‘Entreprises et entrepreneurs en Afrique, XIXe et XXe siècles’, vol. 1, pp. 423-41, Paris: L'Harmattan.
 
1983 ‘Capital accumulation and class formation in Angola, c.1875-1961,’ in D. Birmingham and P. Martin, eds., History of Central Africa, vol. 2, pp. 163-99, London: Longman.
 
1980 ‘Class structure and class struggles in Angola in the 1970s,’ Journal of Southern African Studies, 7, 1, pp. 109-26, (Review Article). 
 
1979 ‘Slaves, commoners and landlords in Bulozi, c.1875-1906,’ Journal of African History, 20, 2, pp. 219-34.
 
1979 ‘The myth of uneconomic imperialism: the Portuguese in Angola, 1836-1926,’ Journal of Southern African Studies, 5, 2, pp. 165-80, (Review Article).
 
1978 ‘Capitalist penetration among the Nyaneka of Southern Angola, 1760s to 1920s,’ African Studies, 37, 2, pp. 275-81.
 
1977 ‘For Braudel: a note on the École des Annales and the historiography of Africa,’ History in Africa, 4, pp. 275-81.
 
1976 ‘Slavery in coastal Southern Angola, 1875-1913,’ Journal of Southern African Studies, 2, 2, pp. 214-23.
 
1976 ‘The Thirstland Trekkers in Angola; some reflections on a frontier society,’ Institute of Commonwealth Studies, Collected Seminar Papers, The Societies of Southern Africa in the 19th and 20th Centuries, vol. 6, pp. 42-51.
 
1976 ‘Pre-capitalist social formations and colonial penetration in Southern Africa,’ Africa Perspective, 5, (Review of Workshop).
 
1975 ‘Underdevelopment and class formation in Ovamboland, 1845-1915,’ Journal of African History, 16, 3, pp. 365-81, (with R. Moorsom); revised version in Robin Palmer and Neil Parsons, eds., The roots of rural poverty in Central and Southern Africa, pp. 96-112, London: Heinemann, 1977, and later printing; republished under new title in Brian Wood, ed., Namibia, 1884-1984, Readings on Namibia's history and society, pp. 175-89, London: Namibia Support Committee, 1988).
 
1973 ‘South Africa and Mozambique, 1960-1970,’ Institute of Commonwealth Studies, Collected Seminar Papers, The Societies of Southern Africa in the 19th and 20th Centuries, vol. 3, pp. 174-88.
 
 

Forthcoming articles & chapters - accepted for publication/ in press

‘Mules in the Indian Ocean World: breeding and trade in the long nineteenth century, 1780s to 1918,’ in Angela Schottenhammer, ed., Maritime exchange across the Indian Ocean World, Volume 2, Ideology and knowledge transfers across the Indian Ocean, Palgrave and NUS Press. (revised version sent; 2016?).
 
‘Middle Eastern migrants in the Philippines: entrepreneurs and cultural brokers,’ in Isaac Donoso, ed., More Islamic than we admit: the easternmost Islamic edge, Quezon City: Vibal Foundation. (reprint with minor corrections of 2005 piece; proofs corrected; publication held up)
 
‘The industrialization of the developing world, 1840s to 1940s,’ in Karin Hoofmeester and Pim De Zwart, eds., Colonialism, institutional change, and shifts in global labour relations, Amsterdam: International Institute of Social History. 
 
‘From betel to beverages: a gustatory revolution,’ in Peter Boomgaard and Raquel Reyes, eds., Sensory worlds of Southeast Asia, London: Routledge. (to be published 2016?)
 
‘Palestinian migrants in the Philippines, 1869-1948,’ Journal of Palestine Studies. (submitted May 2015)
 
‘Arab Muslim migrants in the colonial Philippines: the Hadhramaut connection’, in Muhammad bin Dohry and Abdalla Bujra, eds., Rediscovering Hadhramaut, London: I.B. Tauris. 
 
‘Migrants from South Asia in the Philippines: Armenian, Sindhi, and Gujarati, 1762-1898’ in M-D Elizande and X Huets de Lemps, eds., Comunidades en Filipinas,  Madrid: CSIC.
 
‘Elephants in Islamic history,’ in Ed Emery, ed., Elephants London: RN Books. 
 

Articles & chapters - proposed for publication

‘The Hadhrami diaspora: an overview,’ in Nico Kaptein, ed., (submitted 2015)
 
‘Betel, tobacco, and beverages in Southeast Asia,’ in Raquel Reyes, ed., Art, trade, and cultural mediation in Southeast Asia, 1500-1800, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (to be submitted 31 October 2015)
 
‘Horses, mules and other animals as a factor in Ottoman military performance, 1683-1918,’ in William G. Clarence-Smith, ed., War horses of the world
 
‘Donkeys in the Indian Ocean World: breeding and trade in the long nineteenth century, 1780s to 1918,’ in Ed Emery, ed. Donkey Conferences: collected papers, London: RN Books.
 
‘The all-conquering Balkan mule, c1700-1914,’ in Ed Emery, ed., Donkey Conferences: collected papers, London: RN Books.
 
‘Camels in Middle Eastern campaigns of the First World War’, in Ed Emery, ed., Camel Conference: collected papers, London: RN Books.